This is still being debated in the community and it seems like there are a few options. Vitalik Buterin, when talking to Bankless podcast, presented 3 potential options that are worth discussing. We could just add this functionality to a few and leave the rest.
This could speed the delivery up. Finally, perhaps we should revisit this debate when ZK snarks are firmed up. This is a technology that could help bring truly private transactions to the network. This is still an active discussion point. The Eth2 upgrades are all somewhat interrelated.
The Beacon Chain contains all the logic for keeping shards secure and synced up. The Beacon Chain will coordinate the stakers in the network, assigning them to shards they need to work on. And it will also facilitate communication between shards by receiving and storing shard transaction data that is accessible by other shards.
By the time additional shards are added, Ethereum Mainnet will already be secured by the Beacon Chain using proof-of-stake. This enables a fertile mainnet to build shard chains off of, powered by layer 2 solutions that supercharge the scalability. Help update this page. Translate page. See English. What is ether ETH? Use Ethereum. Search away! They make it easier to run a node by keeping hardware requirements low. This upgrade is planned to follow the merge of Mainnet with the Beacon Chain.
The launchpad will walk you through the hardware requirements and process. Alternatively you can use a backend API. Given recent progress in layer 2 scaling solution research and development, this has prompted the prioritization of the merge upgrade ahead of shard chains. These will be the focus following mainnet transition to proof-of-stake.
Eth2 is already here? Hey Tokemak holders! Ethereum is a protocol undergoing significant changes. In the medium term, we are pushing to upgrade the protocol so it can scale to meet global demand, while also improving security and decentralization.
While it may seem strange to start here, remember that naming frameworks are informed by roadmaps. Below are two examples of recent changes to popular terminology, as well as the reasons for the change. Even though the Beacon Chain has been running alongside mainnet since it launched, using Eth1 and Eth2 suggests that the earlier version goes away at some point. In reality, the chain-state will be seamlessly wedded to the Beacon Chain with the Merge.
In short, execution refers to all things at the user layer: applications, account balances, tokens, etc. Consensus is then the Proof of Stake mechanisms that bind everything together: finality, the fork choice rule, validators, and incentives. In the past, they referred to a specific protocol change, e. Thanks in advance for helping us out with this important effort :.
Ethereum will be the largest protocol ever to hot swap its consensus mechanism, and in turn, hopefully change the narrative. As soon as the upgrade goes live, the chain becomes more secure. Second, PoS removes the immense energy consumption and hardware waste associated with PoW. These two effects will lead to a more energy-efficient, diverse, geographically distributed, and antifragile set of consensus participants.
Third, Ethereum PoS sets the stage for sharding, a similarly significant protocol change that will separate the chain into many concurrent threads. Sharding supercharges L2 scaling efforts by increasing the blockspace available for data availability and settlement. Fourth, ETH priority fees that currently go to miners will instead go to a validator-controlled address on the execution layer. This means the ETH is immediately liquid.
Given that full withdrawals of staked ETH will only go live in the Shanghai upgrade later next year, this is a significant improvement for validators with locked-up capital. Finally, the upgrade will reduce annual ETH issuance from the current net The first major event laying the foundation for the Merge was Rayonism , a month-long hackathon earlier this year.
More recently, we had the Amphora interop. This week-long event continued to build on the success of Rayonism, but adding the crucial moment of transition from PoW to PoS. Concurrently, there is a long-lived devnet called Pithos. Once this transition is reasonably stable, existing testnets like Goerli can be upgraded to match the spec. Interested community members can follow along with "The Merge Mainnet Readiness Checklist , a comprehensive overview of the remaining tasks.
One of the interesting things about Ethereum post-Merge is that though the chain ends up merged, the clients remain independent. This includes how they are architected, as well the teams that work on them. For validators, this means an abundance of choice. Each execution client can be combined with each consensus client, and vice versa, in every permutation.
For fun, I put together a list of possible names for these combo clients here. Independent execution and consensus layers also allow for uncoupled upgrade processes when needed. This nicely slots into the Ethereum philosophy of separation of concerns. In other words, several smaller changes are usually more manageable than one monolithic one. However, the Shanghai upgrade will couple changes to both layers in order to make validator withdrawals possible.
This allows validators to exit their ETH from the consensus to the execution layer, binding them together even more closely. Once the ETH is exited from the Beacon Chain, then it can be used just how people use it today: as a store of value, to pay for NFTs, or pay transaction fees. There are many other proposals being considered for the execution layer, but nothing has been formally accepted into Shanghai. While the above is being specified, implemented, and tested, there are other parallel research efforts pushing Ethereum forward.
After the switch to Proof of Stake, sharding is probably the most significant upcoming change to Ethereum. Note that current proposals are focused on data sharding, and not execution. Rollups today currently use Ethereum for this type of settlement operation. Foundational research for this type of sharding is less complex, meaning it can get to mainnet and supercharge L2s even faster. Prioritizing data availability is in line with where scalability research and applications have already been moving over the past 18 months.
This is a nice example of epistemic flexibility in the wild! This area of research will reform how the protocol handles state. State refers to all user records, including contracts, tokens, NFTs, and addresses. In Ethereum today, users incur a one-time cost per transaction to remain in the state indefinitely. Long term, this is not sustainable. Several proposals with different tradeoffs have been explored over the years, including things like state rent and ReGenesis.
Specifically, only block proposers would be required to store state, while all other nodes can verify blocks statelessly. Witnesses are proofs that are sent alongside a transaction to prove that it is valid. Block Producers: No change, still need all state. Uses witnesses from users to craft blocks that contain valid state changes. If a user wants to reactivate their state, any sent transaction needs to be accompanied by a witness.
One benefit of limiting the active state size is that nodes should be more manageable to sync and maintain. Both of these concepts are being actively researched, benchmarked, and implemented with Proof of Concepts. Dive deeper into current progress:.
Link roundup from Guillame Ballet.
Шардинг представляет собой многоэтапную модернизацию, чтобы улучшить масштабируемость и емкость Ethereum. Цепочки-осколки распределяют нагрузку в сети на Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin has announced that Sharding, a much awaited a more in-depth description of the proof of concept he released this week. Both Ethereum and Polkadot are promising sharding-based launch of layer 2 approaches in , layer 1 sharding solutions have long.